Kenya was first Peer reviewed in 2006 and complimented on several fronts:-

  • Highly efficient tax collection system (enabling the Government to finance over 90% of its budget);
  • Low Aid Dependency;
  • Effective MTEF Process (3 year Budgetary system);
  • Democracy/Openness (Expansion of democratic space through a vibrant media and robust civil society);
  • High degree of human rights and political freedom;
  • Openness and frankness in debating corruption both in print and electronic media;
  • Significant progress in the development of codes of Good Corporate Governance;
  • Introduction of universal free primary education-dramatically increasing enrolment levels;
  • Introduction of Results-Based Management approach in the public sector.

However, some key Overarching Issues identified, that the country needed to address included:

  • Managing diversity in Nation building
  • Constitutional Reform and Consensus Building
  • Corruption
  • Poverty and Wealth Distribution
  • Land
  • Gender Inequality
  • Youth Unemployment; and
  • Transformative Leadership

Note: Most of the above Issues became Pillars of Agenda 4 Reforms.


Kenya was the first country to undergo the second-generation review in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in January 2017.

The Second Country Review Report of 2017 highlighted the following milestones achieved in Kenya.

  • The promulgation of the constitution of Kenya in 2010.
  • Establishment of the devolved system of government (County Governments) which has progressively resolved issues of perceived marginalization
  • Establishment of constitutional commissions and independent offices.
  • The establishment of various empowerment funds notably Women Enterprise Fund, Youth Enterprise Development Fund and the Uwezo Fund.
  • Establishment of Huduma centre Kenya, as a One Stop Shop for public service delivery platforms.

The Report also identified the following challenges;

  • Implementation of the two –thirds gender rule
  • National Security and Terrorism
  • Containing the overall cost of the devolved system and ballooning wage bill
  • Diversity management for national unity
  • Corruption and the quest for transformative leadership
  • Poverty and inequality